Below is list of scientific publications chronologically (with link to PDF) – please forward us any relevant publications not listed here at This is an informational website to help protect children. 


Harman: Gender differences in the use of Parental Alienating Behaviors

Verrocchio: Depression and quality of life in adults perceiving exposure to parental alienation behaviors

Rowlands: Parental Alienation: A measurement tool confirmatory factor analysis validation study. 

Childress: Empathy, the Family, and the Core of Social Justice (Presentation to American Psychological Association on Aug 9, 2019, Chicago) 

Warshak: When evaluators get it wrong: False positive IDs and Parental Alienation 

Buica: Parental Alienation from the perspective of personality structure and disorders of divorced couples

Ferber: Parental Alienation Workshop: A pilot program for targeted parents

Albuquerque: Parental alienation: psychological and legal implications 

Harman: Prevalence of adults who are the targets of parental alienating behaviors and their impact

Wozencraft: The relationship between psychological function in a college sample and retrospective reports of parental loyalty conflicts and psychological maltreatment 

Matrurana: Characteristics and experiences of targeted parents of parental alienation from their won perspective: A systemic literature review 

Harman: Parental Alienation: The blossoming of a field of study 

Stewart: Considering Parental Alienation when assessing best interest of the child 

Aloia: Parent-child communication apprehension: The role of parental alienation and self-esteem

Boch-Galhau: International Classification of Diseases – Parental Alienation 

Rohner: Psychological maladjustment mediates the relation between remembrances of parental rejection in childhood and adults fear of intimacy: a multicultural study

Krill-Reiter: Parental Alienation as a predictor of adult marital and romantic relationship quality

James: Maternal criticism and non-suicidal self-injury in school-aged children 

Mustapha: Impact of parental separation on the self-esteem of in-school adolescents in Nigeria

Klatt: The influence of harsh parenting and parental warmth during childhood on later involvement in prison misconduct 

Priolo :judgement regarding parental alienation when parental hostility or child abuse is alleged 

Otgaar: When children’s testimonies are used as evidence: how children’s accounts may impact child custodial decisions 

Ponti: The roles of parental attachment and sibling relationships on life satisfaction in emerging adults 

Carmela: Family drawing and psychological vulnerability in children’s representations of parental divorce. 

Gunsberg: Concluding Remarks: Psychoanalytic reflections on the impact of separation and divorce 

Meland: Parental alienation as a health risk (Norwegian)

Tian: Parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior: deviant peer affiliation as a mediator and school connectedness as a moderator

Vakim: Forced family alienation: new data and new opinions on alienation from parents Part I 

Harman: Parental Alienation Vs. Loyalty Binds

von Boch-Galhau: Book review – Parental Alienation: Handbook for mental health and legal professionals 

Boerchi: The mediating role of students’ perception of parental behaviours between parental attachment and school choice 

Sharma: The victimized Victor: A study of parental alienation in Chuck Palahniuk’s Choke 



Bernet et al: An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire.  
Harman et al: Parental Alienating Behaviors: An Unacknowledged Form of Family Violence

Warshak: Reclaiming parent-child relationships: Outcomes of family bridges with alienated children 

Kurk: Parental alienation as a form of emotional child abuse: current state of knowledge and future directions for research

O’Sullivan: Parental alienation – a systemic perspective 

Smith: Parenting time and child coping: The context of parental alienation 

von Boch-Galhau: Parental Alienation – A serious form of child mental abuse

Rowland: Parental Alienation: A Measurement Tool 

Cardiff University: Review of research and case law on parental alienation 

Baker: Reliability and validity of the four-factor model of parental alienation

Blagg: Exploring Parent-Child relationships in alienated versus neglected/emotionally abused children using the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test

Wozencraft: The relationship between psychological functioning in a college sample and retrospect reports of parental loyalty conflicts and psychological maltreatment 

Almeida: Integration project of family mediation in the court of family and children 

Gil: The family coexistence in cases of custody arrangements and parental responsibilities in the light of the case law of the European court of human rights 

Diaz: Mediation in the new Brazilian civil procedure code – NCPCB: An alternative for conflicts in the context of parental alienation. 

Bernet: Scientific basis of parental alienation 

Templar et al: Recommendations for best practice in response to parental alienation: findings from a systematic review. This is literature review of research from inception to 2015 regarding parental alienation. Here are the take home messages:
  – “Traditional family therapy is ineffective and may cause further damage.”
 – “separating the child from the alienating parent was not harmful to the child”
 – “Awarding primary parental responsibility to the targeted parent when parental alienation is             severe is an important step in ameliorating parental alienation”
  – “Research findings indicate that removing the targeted child from the care of their preferred              parent does not harm them”
Huff: Development and validation of a scale to measure children’s contact refusal of parents following divorce. 
Baker: Bonded to the abuser: How and why maltreated children form and maintain attachments to abusive caregivers 
Kurk: The Life of the Alienated Parent
Jaffe et al: Denial of ambivalence as hallmark of parental alienation 

Balmer: Parental Alienation: Targeted parent perspective

Corras: What and how much do children lose in academic settings owing to parental separation?

Monteira: The role of social worker – the value of bounds 

Nascimento: Innovations of the Brazilian mediation system: New mediation horizons 

Warshak: Stemming the tide of misinformation: International consensus on shared parenting and overnighting 

Jones: A new paradigm for parental alienation 

Orth: The family environment in early childhood has a long-term effect on self-esteem: a longitudinal study from birth to age 27 years 


Verrocchio:  Associations between Exposure to Alienating Behaviors, Anxiety, and Depression in an Italian Sample of Adults
Harman et al: Prevalence of parental alienation drawn from a representative poll

Childress: The Domestic Violence of Parental Alienation: The Narcissistic Personality in High-Conflict Divroce

Baker: The linkage between parental alienation behavior and child alienation 

Baker: Exposure to parental alienation and subsequent anxiety and expression in Italian adults

Bernet: Child affected by parental relationship distress

Gomide: Analysis of the psychometric properties of a parental alienation scale

Harman: Parents behaving badly: Gender biases in the perception of parental alienating behavior

Seijo: Estimating the epidemiology and quantifying the damages of parental separation in children and adolescents 

Smith: Family-based therapy for parent-child reunification

Baker: The reality of parental alienation: Commentary on “Judicial Decision-making in family law proceedings” by Clemente  et al

The Long History of PAS


Warshak: Ten Parental Alienation Fallacies That Compromise Decisions in Court
and in Therapy

Bernet: Parental Alienation (Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology 2015)

Warshak: Parental alienation: overview, management, intervention, and practice tips

Reay: Family Reflections: A Promising Therapeutic Program Designed to Treat Severely Alienated Children and Their Family System
Verrocchio: Perceived parental functioning, self-esteem, and psychological distress in adults whose parents are separated/divorced 

Bernet: Children of High-Conflict Divore Face many Challenges 

Sher: Parental alienation and suicide in men

Lowenstein: How can the process of parental alienation and the alienator be effectively treated? 

Baker: Parental bonding and parental alienation as correlates of psychological maltreatment in adults in intact and non-intact families

Bernet: Symptom checklist-90-revised scores in adult children exposed to alienating behaviors: An Italian sample 

Bernet: Parental alienation: misinformation  versus facts

Giancarlo: Kids come last: The effect of family law involvement in parental alienation 

Vachon: Assessment of the harmful psychiatric and behavioral effects of different forms of child maltreatment

Bernet: Yes, children are susceptible to manipulation: commentary on article by clemente and padilla-racero 

Carr: Giving voice to the silence of family estrangement: comparing reasons of estrangement parents and adult children in a non-matched sample 

Polak: Children resisting contact with a parent postseparation: assessing this phenomenon using an ecological systems framework 


American Psychological Association (APA): Childhood psychological abuse as harmful as sexual and physical abuse
Woodall: Why systemic family therapy can’t help in cases of parental alienation

Baker: Parental Bonding and Parental Alienation as Correlates of Psychological Maltreatment in Adults in Intact and Non-intact Families

Koppejan-Luitze: Pathway to parental alienation or estrangement 

Garber: The chameleon child: children as actors in the high conflict divorce drama

Davies: Children’s coping and adjustment in high-conflict homes: the reformulation of emotional security theory 

Spinazzola: Unseen wounds: The contribution of psychological maltreatment to child and adolescent mental health and risk outcomes. 

Ferguson: Parental separation/divorce in childhood and partnership outcomes at age 30. 

Lacey: Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms 


Childress: reconceptualizing Parental Alienation: Parental Personality Disorder and the Trans-generational Transmission of Attachment Trauma. 
Rosen: The Child’s Attorney and the Alienated Child: Approaches to resolving the ethical dilemma of diminished capacity

Areskoug: Parental Alienation: A Swedish perspective introduction to a transgenerational case study with policy recommendations: Towards a resolution of the controversy in science and society on parental alienation, Book I 

Bernet and Baker: Parental Alienation, DSM-5, and ICD-11: Response to Critics

Baker: Italian college student-reported childhood exposure to parental alienation: correlates with well-being

Toren: Sixteen-session group treatment for children and adolescents with parental alienation and their parents

Austin: Parental gatekeeping and child custody/child access evaluation: Part I: conceptual framework, research, and application

Moore: The tug of war child: counseling children involved in high conflict divorces 

Raudino: The quality of parent’child relationships in adolescence is associated with poor adult psychosocial adjustment 

Reiter: Impact of divorce and loss of parental contact on health complaints among adolescents 


Ben-Ami: The long-term correlates of childhood exposure to parental alienation on adult self-sufficiency and well-being

Godbout: The Life paths and lived experiences of adults who have experienced parental alienation: A retrospective study 

Gith: The attitude of the Shari’a courts to parental alienation syndrome: understanding the dynamics of the syndrome in Arab society

Baker: Differentiating alienated from not alienated children: a pilot study 

Mone: Assessing parental alienation: Empirical assessment of college students’ recollections of parental alienation during their childhood 

Houchin: The parental alienation debate belongs in the courtroom, not in DSM-5 

Kruk: Arguments for an equal parental responsibility presumption of contested child custody 


Darnall: The Psychosocial Treatment of Parental Alienation

Baker: Adult recall of childhood exposure to parental conflict: unpacking the black box of parental alienation 

 Rand: Parental Alienation Critics and the Politics of Science. 

Mone: Family members’ narratives of divorce and interparental conflict: implications for parental alienation

Baker: To turn a child against a a parent is to turn a child against himself: the direct and indirect effects of exposure to parental alienation strategies on self-esteem and well-being 

Garber: Parental alienation and the dynamics of the enmeshed parent-child dyad: adultification, parentification, and infantilization. 

Baker: Adult recall of childhood psychological maltreatment in “adult children of divorce”: prevalence and associations with concurrent measures of well-being 

Hands: Parental Alienation among college students


 Baker: Adult recall of parental alienation in a community sample: prevalence and associations with psychological maltreatment

Warshak: Alienating audiences from innovation: the perils of polemics, ideology, and innuendo

Bernet: Parental Alienation, DSM-V and ICD-11


Ellis: Intervention strategies for parent coordinators in parental alienation case 

Jaffe: Early identification and prevention of parent-child alienation: a framework for balancing risks and benefits of intervention 

Friedlander: When a child rejects a parent: tailoring the intervention to fit the problem 

Rand: Parental alienation critics and the politics of science 

Sullivan: Overcoming barriers family camp: a program for high-conflict divorced families where a child is resisting contact with a parent 

Warshak: Family bridges: using insights from social science to reconnect parents and alienated children 

Lowenstein: Attachment theory and parental alienation 

Walden: Attachment quality and bullying behavior in school-aged youth


 Bow et al: Examining Parental Alienation in Child Custody Cases: A Survey of Mental Health and Legal Professionals


Darnall: Motivational models for spontaneous reunification with the alienated child: part II

Gordon: MMPI-2 findings of primitive defenses in alienating parents 

Baker: Parental alienation syndrome – the parent/child disconnect 

Ellis: A stepwise approach to evaluating children for parental alienation syndrome

Jager: The development of parental alienation syndrome: Interview protocol (Masters thesis)


Baker: Knowledge and attitudes about the parental alienation syndrome: a survey of custody evaluators

Cartwright: Expanding the parameteres of parental alienation syndrome

Baker: A construct study of the eight symptoms of severe parental alienation syndrome 

Garber: Conceptualizing visitation resistance and refusal in the context of parental conflict, separation and divorce 

Bala: Sexual abuse allegations and parental separation: smokescreen or fire?


Mone: Perceived Parent-Child Alienation: empirical assessment of parent-child relationships within divorced and intact families 
Kopetski: Incidence, gender, and false allegations of child abuse: data on 84 parental alienation syndrome cases. 

Baker: Patterns of parental alienation syndrome: A qualitative study of adults who are alienated from a parent as a child 

Donner: Tearing the child apart: The contribution of narcissism, envy, and perverse modes of thought to child custody wars

Baker: The power of stories/stories about power: Why therapists and clients should read stories about the parental alienation syndrome
Baker: Behaviors and Strategies employed in parental alienation 

Becker: False allegations of sexual abuse on under aged persons: between Munchausen by proxy and parental alienation 

Weigel: Parental alienation syndrome: Diagnostic and triadic perspectives 


 Pearlman: Clinical Applications of the Attachment Framework: Relational Treatment of Complex Trauma

Rand (Part III): The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome 

Baker: The Long-Term effects of parental alienation on adult children: A Qualitative Research Study

Spruijt: Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) in the Netherlands 

Ellis: Help the alienated parent 

Johnston: Children of divorce who reject a parent and refuse visitation: recent research and social policy implications 


Garber: Parental Alienation in light of attachment theory 

Garber: Therapist Alienation: Foreseeing and Forestalling Third-Party Dynamics Undermining Psychotherapy With Children of Conflicted Caregivers

Drozd: Is it abuse, alienation, and/or estrangement? A decision tree

Raso: If the bread goes stale, it’s my dad’s fault: The parental alienation syndrome (Dissertation)

Rueda: An inter-rater reliability study of parental alienation syndrome 


Turkat: Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Review of Critical Issues

Johnston: Parental Alignments and Rejection: An Empirical Study of Alienation in Children of Divorce

Gardner: Does DSM-IV have equivalents for parental alienation syndrome (PAS) diagnosis?

Warshak: Bringing sense to parental alienation: a look at the disputes and the evidence 

Warshak: Payoffs and pitfalls of listening to children 


Gardner: Parental alienation syndrome vs. parental alienation: which diagnosis should evaluators use in child-custody disputes?

Warshak: Current controversies regarding parental alienation syndrome 

Gardner: Should courts order PAS children to visit/reside with the alienated parent? A follow-up study

 Kelly et al: The Alienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome



Ayoub:  Emotional distress in children of high-conflict divorce

 Gardner: Differentiating between parental alienation syndrome and bona fide abuse-neglect

Bone: Parental alienation Syndrome: How to detect it and what to do about it. 

Bruck: The suggestibility of children’s memory 


Faller: The parental alienation syndrome: what is it and what data support it? 
Siegel: MMPI-2 Validity scales and suspected parental alienation syndrome 

Rand (Part I): The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome 
Rand (Part II): The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome

Gardener: Recommendations for dealing with parents who induce a parental alienation syndrome in their children 

Lowenstein: Parent alienation syndrome: a two step approach toward a solution 


Waldron et al: Understanding and Collaboratively Treating Parental Alienation Syndrome


Dunne et al:  The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Analysis of Sixteen Selected Cases


Klosinski: Psychological maltreatment in the context of separation and divorce


Buchanan:   Caught between parents: adolescents’ experience in divorced homes



 Ainsworth: Attachments beyond infancy


Gardner: The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the differentiation between fabricated and genuine child sex abuse
Lampel: Post divorce therapy with highly conflicted families 
Gardner: Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation 
Wallerstein: The effects of parental divorce: Experiences of the child in later latency 
 #parentalalienation and #parentalalienationresearch #pathogenicparenting 
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